journalist with 8 years of experience
The question about analytical journalism has been raising debates for a long time. Many people think that a journalist doesn't have to make own conclusions concerning popular social events, public processes, but only establish facts. Others on contrast believe that an opinion about a situation and theoretical and practical problems of social development connected with it has to be expressed always.
The characteristics of analytical journalism is that it turns toward problem of choosing of effective ways in social development, reasons clarification, course of events conditions and changing of situations, grounds, motives, interests, intentions, actions of different social powers, correctness and basis for different points of view and ideas, finding out of modern contradictions in development tendencies.
Particularities of national analytics in mass media:
1. Opening the reasons: presence of thesis, arguments and author's opinion in the text.
2. Semantic process of the subject's studying: logic of the author's discourses for persuasiveness and conclusiveness has to be seen.
3. Presence of all methods of the situation's studying:
- comparison (the collation to reveal the differences);
- analogy (the collation to reveal resemblance);
- estimation (checking the subject on correspondence to ideal);
- detailed elaboration (revealing the most significant details);
- explanation (reconstitution of cause-effect relationships chain);
- prediction (working out of the hypothesis);
- generalization (discovery general link in series of events).
4. It is oriented on communication: interlocutor is present in text, or is meant.
5. Graphically-concrete way of the material's studying: explanation, which is guided by information base of the interlocutor, jr explanation of "complex" in a simple language.
6. Reflection of the reality in dynamics.
Journalism functions in an analyst
1. Social audience
Only analytical text can present the audience facts in their cause-effect correlation, give them detailed interpretation, estimation, ground the forecast of the further development, plan of actions, connected with one or another situation. Exactly so, confirming that or other meaning of available information oriented and influencing upon social audience, we have to accept that analytics in given attitude is not on the last position.
2. The source of data
In spite of the fact that legislation of Kazakhstan does not oblige the social institutes and authorized bodies to respond clearly to publications in mass media concerning their activity, exactly the analytical genre can render them information help in decision making (when writing legal acts, revealing of statistical data, etc.) on important and actual events in public life. Publications of such sort are divided into two groups:
1. Social studies: aspects of public life, being subject of the special interest and falling into zone of responsibility of that or another authorized body.
2. Institutional studies: activity of authorized bodies, estimation of their activity efficiency, analysis of the taken laws, standards and etc.
Review, as analytical genre, appeared long ago.
"Review has appeared, when press has felt need to see the period of time", - Belinskiy. A couple of ages ago this genre reached the top of popularity since authors were able to show pictures of that time with all details and full dimensioned, more often putting together phenomena of literal and theatrical lives with reality.
Today "review" is the most popular genre of news programs on television. The main purpose of this genre - to give the audience complete, whole picture of some period of reality, to explain relations between facts, to show the dynamics and the main processes. Facts, which allow to judge about trends, and to reflect reality, are the subject of "review" in most of the cases.
A sole fact in "review" does not matter. Facts unite under the single concept of reality semblance by observer (the journalist). The estimation of those or other facts is reflected in comments (the ligament between them) and explains the reason of their choosing (why exactly these facts).
"Review" is universal in the aspect of composition, form, covered subject and themes.
Review can show general scene of life within definite period of time, thematic and detailed consideration of one period of life, a letter, correspondence and normative documents (if they perform the role of a fact).
Certainly, work in this genre has its specifics, for example, clear formulation of an idea, refusal from artificial selection of facts, good knowledge of the theme or subject.
The genre particularities of a "notice" (reference, comment) - other type of the presenting information, which was formed in the 18th age, but still is being popular today. Giving determination of notice it is possible to say that this is a material, which contains analysis, estimation of a life event and expresses opinion of the author about it.
On genre features notice adjoins not only with analytics, but also adopts a great deal from information-news direction. The main particularity and difference of "notice" from other directions - mediate reality i.e. reflection of facts and events of reality in reviewed work. Such type of work is characterized by vividness, which attracts attention, and typicalness, which allows to judge the trends.
Types of analytical materials
Front-page (editorial) article - a material, written on actual, vital topic, that shows official position of the printing media or TV channel on this problem. It is published as "theme of the issue" in printed mass media and opens the news on TV channels. In Soviet times it was called "directive".
Propagandistic article - a statement of some ideas. Task - to clarify and explain serious issues, problems, to interpret them from theoretical level to common language, that can be understood by mass audience. Often is written in critical way: statement one through critic of another.
Problem raising article - an identification of the problem as socially important, proof, requiring towards itself public attention. Prognostic element is important.
Theoretical article is a study of purely special problem on theoretical level. It rarely meets in mass publishing editions and more wide-spread in scientific mass media for smaller audiences.
Publicist' comment is an operative material that is toughly connected with the event: preceding one, or being published simultaneously with the event. Structure for writing of such material may differ from traditional one. The main subject is "an event", whose essence during disclosure, gives the all-round judging.
All above-mentioned types of articles might be referred to analytical ones since they allow to cover actual, significant for public, great phenomena and processes deeply and thoroughly, open the cause-effect relationships of events, reveal the mechanism of those or others events and as a result - make large-scale conclusions, generalizations and forecast the variants of situation's development. Analytics is a complex genre, requiring a lot of work. Its appearance itself is connected with that period in life of the society, when public consciousness ceased to be satisfied with contemplation of events and started trying to understand the essence and what hidden reasons move it (the event).
The subject of analytics is large, public significant social events, phenomena, processes. Certainly, contradictions and strong subjective element will partly call attention to themselves in given area, so own vision of the problem is important. Subject-thematic sphere practically nothing is not limited. Deep study (preparation of analytics) with the reason to find out sources, mechanism, leading power and probable consequences is solved by revealing of the cause-effect relationships, estimations of the event/phenomena, generalizing characteristics, creation of forecasts and model of the event development's variants.
The last that I'd like to note is composition and language of reporting material. Composition has to be based on logic to author's thought close to technologies of cognitive-oriented text. Style of the writing and language of the interpretation - journalistic, it is important to avoid too much of scientific content and terminology (make the material difficult for understanding).
The Material is prepared after analysis of available professional-training literature